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Monoclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Regulation of Catalytic Activity

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Ancient ubiquitous protein 1 (AUP1) is a component of the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) machinery responsible for the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of misfolded proteins (1). AUP1 protein contains four conserved domains, with a long, amino-terminal stretch of hydrophobic amino acids followed by an acyltransferase domain (2). Amino-terminal protein sequences direct localization of AUP1 to both the ER and to cytosolic lipid droplets (3). The AUP1 CUE domain binds ubiquitin (4), while the G2BR domain allows for association between AUP1 and E2 conjugating enzyme UBE2G2 (5,6). The presence of these binding domains suggests a central role for AUP1 in the ubiquitination-mediated protein degradation (2). Research studies indicate that AUP1 recruits UBE2G2 to cytosolic lipid droplets, ER-derived organelles that are sites for storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids. Inhibition of AUP1 protein function results in decreased ubiquitin-mediated degradation of several proteins, including the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme HMG-CoA-reductase and the cholesterol synthesis regulator INSIG1 (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Presenilin Enhancer 2 (PEN2) is a small integral membrane glycoprotein that contains two recognized transmembrane domains. Both the N- and C-terminal domains are oriented into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (1). PEN2, along with Presenilin 1, Presenilin 2, Nicastrin, and APH-1 form the protein complex γ-secretase (2). The proteinase BACE catalyses the initial step in APP processing by cleaving and releasing soluble APPβ (3). The remaining membrane bound APP is then cleaved by the γ-secretase complex, causing the release of amyloid β-peptide, the main constituent of amyloid plaques. These plaques are a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease pathology (2). In addition to APP, the γ-secretase complex cleaves several other proteins and necessary presenilin-dependent signaling cascades, including the Notch pathway (4). It was found that PEN2 is an important part of the γ-secretase complex, and knocking it down results in reduced amounts of the complex, resulting in a loss of γ-secretase activity (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Presenilin Enhancer 2 (PEN2) is a small integral membrane glycoprotein that contains two recognized transmembrane domains. Both the N- and C-terminal domains are oriented into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (1). PEN2, along with Presenilin 1, Presenilin 2, Nicastrin, and APH-1 form the protein complex γ-secretase (2). The proteinase BACE catalyses the initial step in APP processing by cleaving and releasing soluble APPβ (3). The remaining membrane bound APP is then cleaved by the γ-secretase complex, causing the release of amyloid β-peptide, the main constituent of amyloid plaques. These plaques are a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease pathology (2). In addition to APP, the γ-secretase complex cleaves several other proteins and necessary presenilin-dependent signaling cascades, including the Notch pathway (4). It was found that PEN2 is an important part of the γ-secretase complex, and knocking it down results in reduced amounts of the complex, resulting in a loss of γ-secretase activity (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cullin-associated and neddylation-dissociated (CAND1)/TIP120A is a protein containing multiple HEAT repeats. It functions, in part, as an inhibitor of multiple cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) via binding to cullin-RBX complexes that are both unconjugated to NEDD8 and lack association with substrate recognition subunits (1-3). Indeed, CAND1 has been shown to bind all cullin family members in human cells and analysis of the crystal structure of human CAND1 bound to the CUL1-RBX1 complex suggests that CAND1 inhibits the activity of CRLs by sterically blocking both the substrate recognition subunit binding site and the NEDD8 conjugation site (1,3,4). Conversely, CAND1 binding to cullin-RBX complexes is incompatible with neddylation as NEDD8 conjugated to cullins blocks CAND1 binding, suggesting that CAND1 binds to cullins only after the COP9 signalosome has catalyzed cullin deneddylation. Through its ability to negatively regulate CRL assembly, CAND1 plays an integral part in facilitating CRL activation cycles that allow CRLs to utilize distinct substrate recognition subunits and protects these subunits from undergoing ubiquitin-dependent degradation (5-7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Ubiquitin regulatory X domain-containing protein 8 (UBXD8, also known as ETEA and FAF2) is a hairpin-anchored endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein involved in ER associated degradation (ERAD). It influences this process by promoting translocation of misfolded proteins from the ER lumen to the cytoplasm for proteasome-mediated degradation (1). UBXD8 is a sensor for unsaturated fatty acids. In the absence of fatty acids UBXD8 binds to and targets INSIG1 for degradation, ultimately resulting in activation of SREBP-1. Under this condition, UBXD8 also inhibits triglyceride synthesis by blocking the conversion of diacylglycerols into triglycerides. Unsaturated fatty acids trigger UBXD8 polymerization and dissociation of UBXD8/INSIG1 complex, leading to feedback inhibition of SREBP-1 (2, 3). This induces UBXD8 to translocate from the ER to lipid droplets, where it binds to ATGL and inhibits its lipase activity (4, 5). The complex containing p97 and UBXD8 is reported to promote disassembly of the ribonucleoprotein complex to control mRNA stability (6). In addition, UBXD8 binds to and promotes degradation of neurofibromin (NF1), suggesting a role in regulating Ras activity (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of proteins activated in response to nutrient deprivation and in neurodegenerative conditions (1). One of the proteins critical to this process is Beclin-1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast autophagy protein Apg6/Vps30 (2). Beclin-1 can complement defects in yeast autophagy caused by loss of Apg6 and can also stimulate autophagy when overexpressed in mammalian cells (3). Mammalian Beclin-1 was originally isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen for Bcl-2 interacting proteins and has been shown to interact with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but not with Bax or Bak (4). While Beclin-1 is generally ubiquitously expressed, research studies have shown it is monoallelically deleted in 40-75% of sporadic human breast and ovarian cancers (5). Beclin-1 is localized within cytoplasmic structures including the mitochondria, although overexpression of Beclin-1 reveals some nuclear staining and CRM1-dependent nuclear export (6). Investigators have demonstrated that Beclin-1-/- mice die early in embryogenesis and Beclin-1-/+ mice have a high incidence of spontaneous tumors. Stem cells from the null mice demonstrate an altered autophagic response, although responses to apoptosis appeared normal (7). Researchers have also found that overexpression of Beclin-1 in virally infected neurons in vivo resulted in significant protection against Sindbis virus-induced disease and neuronal apoptosis (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The process of SUMO conjugation to target proteins is similar to the molecular chain of events observed with ubiquitin (1). SUMO is conjugated to target proteins through the coordinated action of the cellular SUMO conjugation machinery consisting of E1, E2, and E3 enzymes (2). The canonical SUMO E1 activating enzyme is a heterodimer consisting of SAE1 (AOS1) and UBA2 (SAE2) subunits. Mature SUMO is activated by E1 in an ATP-dependent reaction that generates adenylated SUMO, which functions as a high-energy intermediate in the formation of a thioester linkage between SUMO and Cys173 of UBA2 (3,4). SUMO is subsequently transferred from UBA2 to the SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme, UBC9 (5). Recent evidence suggests that redox regulation of UBA2 serves as a physiologic mechanism to modulate the cellular level of sumoylated target proteins (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Nicastrin is a transmembrane glycoprotein serving as an essential component of the γ-secretase complex (1,2). Nicastrin is physically associated with presenilin and plays an important role in the stabilization and correct localization of presenilin to the membrane-bound γ-secretase complex (3). Nicastrin also serves as a docking site for γ-secretase substrates such as APP and Notch, directly binding to them and properly presenting them to γ-secretase to ensure the correct cleavage process (2,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Nicastrin is a transmembrane glycoprotein serving as an essential component of the γ-secretase complex (1,2). Nicastrin is physically associated with presenilin and plays an important role in the stabilization and correct localization of presenilin to the membrane-bound γ-secretase complex (3). Nicastrin also serves as a docking site for γ-secretase substrates such as APP and Notch, directly binding to them and properly presenting them to γ-secretase to ensure the correct cleavage process (2,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: DARPP-32 (dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, relative molecular mass 32,000) is a cytosolic protein highly enriched in medium-sized spiny neurons of the neostriatum (1). It is a bifunctional signaling molecule that controls serine/threonine kinase and serine/threonine phosphatase activity (2). Dopamine stimulates phosphorylation of DARPP-32 through D1 receptors and activation of PKA. PKA phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Thr34 converts it into an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (1). DARPP-32 is converted into an inhibitor of PKA when phosphorylated at Thr75 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) (2). Mice containing a targeted deletion of the DARPP-32 gene exhibit an altered biochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral phenotype (3).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of proteins activated in response to nutrient deprivation and in neurodegenerative conditions (1). One of the proteins critical to this process is Beclin-1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast autophagy protein Apg6/Vps30 (2). Beclin-1 can complement defects in yeast autophagy caused by loss of Apg6 and can also stimulate autophagy when overexpressed in mammalian cells (3). Mammalian Beclin-1 was originally isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen for Bcl-2 interacting proteins and has been shown to interact with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but not with Bax or Bak (4). While Beclin-1 is generally ubiquitously expressed, research studies have shown it is monoallelically deleted in 40-75% of sporadic human breast and ovarian cancers (5). Beclin-1 is localized within cytoplasmic structures including the mitochondria, although overexpression of Beclin-1 reveals some nuclear staining and CRM1-dependent nuclear export (6). Investigators have demonstrated that Beclin-1-/- mice die early in embryogenesis and Beclin-1-/+ mice have a high incidence of spontaneous tumors. Stem cells from the null mice demonstrate an altered autophagic response, although responses to apoptosis appeared normal (7). Researchers have also found that overexpression of Beclin-1 in virally infected neurons in vivo resulted in significant protection against Sindbis virus-induced disease and neuronal apoptosis (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Ring1A plays a role in polycomb group (PcG) protein function. PcG proteins are critically involved in transcriptional repression of Hox genes during development (1,2). PcG proteins form two distinct complexes: EED-EZH2 and the PRC complex, which is composed of at least Bmi1 and Ring1A/Ring1B. The EZH2-containing complex is responsible for the methylation of H3K27, and the PRC complex ubiquitylates H2A. EZH2 methylation is required prior to PRC ubiquitylation, and both are essential for Hox gene repression (3). It has recently been shown that PcG proteins silence a group of developmentally important regulator genes, referred to as bivalent genes (4). This regulation may be responsible for the ability of stem cells to self renew or switch to differentiate into multipotent progenitors. Aberrant epigenetic silencing by PcG proteins is also thought to be important in tumorigenesis (5).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of proteins activated in response to nutrient deprivation and in neurodegenerative conditions (1). One of the proteins critical to this process is Beclin-1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast autophagy protein Apg6/Vps30 (2). Beclin-1 can complement defects in yeast autophagy caused by loss of Apg6 and can also stimulate autophagy when overexpressed in mammalian cells (3). Mammalian Beclin-1 was originally isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen for Bcl-2 interacting proteins and has been shown to interact with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but not with Bax or Bak (4). While Beclin-1 is generally ubiquitously expressed, research studies have shown it is monoallelically deleted in 40-75% of sporadic human breast and ovarian cancers (5). Beclin-1 is localized within cytoplasmic structures including the mitochondria, although overexpression of Beclin-1 reveals some nuclear staining and CRM1-dependent nuclear export (6). Investigators have demonstrated that Beclin-1-/- mice die early in embryogenesis and Beclin-1-/+ mice have a high incidence of spontaneous tumors. Stem cells from the null mice demonstrate an altered autophagic response, although responses to apoptosis appeared normal (7). Researchers have also found that overexpression of Beclin-1 in virally infected neurons in vivo resulted in significant protection against Sindbis virus-induced disease and neuronal apoptosis (4).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: DARPP-32 (dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, relative molecular mass 32,000) is a cytosolic protein highly enriched in medium-sized spiny neurons of the neostriatum (1). It is a bifunctional signaling molecule that controls serine/threonine kinase and serine/threonine phosphatase activity (2). Dopamine stimulates phosphorylation of DARPP-32 through D1 receptors and activation of PKA. PKA phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Thr34 converts it into an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (1). DARPP-32 is converted into an inhibitor of PKA when phosphorylated at Thr75 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) (2). Mice containing a targeted deletion of the DARPP-32 gene exhibit an altered biochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral phenotype (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Calcineurin binding protein CABIN1 was originally identified as an inhibitor of the calcium-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase, calcineurin. CABIN1 inhibits calcineurin signaling in T cells, regulating T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, transcription, and apoptosis (1-4). CABIN1 represses myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2)-mediated transcription by recruiting chromatin remodeling enzymes (5), and also negatively regulates the activity of the tumor suppressor p53 (6). In response to genotoxic stress, CABIN1 is degraded and releases its inhibition of p53, allowing p53 to elicit cellular stress responses (7). CABIN1 is also involved in regulation of chromatin structure as part of the highly conserved HIRA/UBN1/CABIN1/ASF1A (HUCA) histone chaperone complex (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: mRNA decapping is an important process in the mRNA turnover (1). DCP1A and DCP2 were identified as two human decapping enzymes and homologs of the better-characterized S. cerevisiae enzymes. Both putative decapping enzymes interact with the regulator of nonsense transcripts 1 (UPF1) and may be recruited by UPF1 or related proteins to mRNA sequences that contain premature termination codons (1). Additional research studies demonstrate that DCP1A, DCP1B (the homolog of DCP1A) and DCP2 colocalize with decapping activation factors RCK/p54 and Lsm proteins in cytoplasmic loci (2). DCP1A, DCP1B and DCP2 are components of cytoplasmic processing (P) bodies, with hyper-phosphorylation of DCP1A during mitosis suggesting a possible mechanism of P-body regulation during the cell cycle (3,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The polycomb group (PcG) proteins contribute to the maintenance of cell identity, stem cell self-renewal, cell cycle regulation and oncogenesis by maintaining the silenced state of genes that promote cell lineage specification, cell death and cell-cycle arrest (1-4). PcG proteins exist in two complexes that cooperate to maintain long-term gene silencing through epigenetic chromatin modifications: PRC1 and PRC2. PRC1 is a multi-subunit protein complex consisting of a combination of five core protein families: CBX, RING1, PHC, PCGF, and RYPB (5-7). Different combinations of protein family members lead to a diverse array of PRC1 complexes with distinct functions (8). At least two distinct classes of PRC1 complexes have been defined. The first class, known as canonical PRC1, contains RING1, PHC, PCGF and CBX protein subunits, but not RYPB (5-8). This class of PRC1 complexes requires PRC2 and H3K27Me3 for proper recruitment to target genes. CBX proteins mediate recruitment by binding to H3K27Me3. CBX8 in particular is required for repression of many lineage-specific genes during differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells and may play a role in activation of lineage-specific genes during differentiation of embryonic stem cells (9,10). The second class, known as variant PRC1, contains RYPB instead of CBX proteins (5-8). RYBP-containing PRC1 is recruited to chromatin independently of PRC2 and H3K27Me3. These variant PRC1 complexes can function independently of PRC2, or in some cases function upstream to recruit PRC2 complex to target genes.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The mTORC1 kinase complex is a critical regulator of cell growth (1,2). Its activity is modulated by enviromental factors such as energy levels, growth factors, and amino acids (3, 4). The GTPases RagA, RagB, RagC, and RagD mediate amino acid signaling to activate mTORC1 (1, 2). SH3BP4 (SH3 domain-binding protein 4) binds to the inactive Rag GTPase complex during amino acid starvation and prevents the association of Rag GTPase complex with mTORC1 resulting in the suppression of mTORC1 activation and cell growth (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome proteins (WASPs) mediate actin dynamics by activating the Arp2/3 actin nucleation complex in response to activated Rho family GTPases. In mammals, five WASP family members have been described. Hematopoietic WASP and ubiquitously expressed N-WASP are autoinhibited in unstimulated cells. Upon stimulation they are activated by cdc42, which relieves the autoinhibition in conjunction with phosphatidyl inositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Three WAVE (Wasf, SCAR) family proteins are similar in sequence to WASP and N-WASP but lack the WASP/N-WASP autoinhibition domains and are indirectly activated by Rac (reviewed in 1). Both WASP and WAVE functions appear to be essential, as knockout of either N-WASP or Scar-2 in mice results in cardiac and neuronal defects and embryonic lethality (2,3). Loss of WASP results in immune system defects and fewer immune cells (4). WAVE-2 (WASF2) is widely distributed, while WAVE-1 and WAVE-3 are strongly expressed in brain (5). WAVE-3 may act as a tumor suppressor in neuroblastoma, a childhood disease of the sympathetic nervous system (6). Increased expression of WAVE-3 is seen in breast cancer, and studies in breast adenocarcinoma cells indicate that WAVE-3 regulates breast cancer progression, invasion and metastasis through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Spinophilin is an 815 amino acid protein composed of a PDZ domain, 2 actin-binding domains, a receptor- and PP1-binding domain, three coiled-coiled domains, a potential leucine/isoleucine zipper motif, and three potential SH3 domains (1). Spinophilin interacts with a large number of proteins including ion channel components and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Spinophilin also interacts with actin filaments; phosphorylation of spinophilin at Ser94 and Ser177 disrupts this interaction (2). Spinophilin has been shown to affect GPCR function through two different mechanisms: spinophilin acts as a functional inhibitor of α-2 adrenergic receptor-mediated arrestin signaling by competing with GRK2 binding to the adrenergic receptor (3) and spinophilin facilitates μ-opioid receptor desensitization by promoting receptor endocytosis (4).