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Monoclonal Antibody Interferon-Gamma Production

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, named for the closely related Toll receptor in Drosophila, play a pivotal role in innate immune responses (1-4). TLRs recognize conserved motifs found in various pathogens and mediate defense responses (5-7). Triggering of the TLR pathway leads to the activation of NF-κB and subsequent regulation of immune and inflammatory genes (4). The TLRs and members of the IL-1 receptor family share a conserved stretch of approximately 200 amino acids known as the Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain (1). Upon activation, TLRs associate with a number of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins containing TIR domains, including myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), MyD88-adaptor-like/TIR-associated protein (MAL/TIRAP), Toll-receptor-associated activator of interferon (TRIF), and Toll-receptor-associated molecule (TRAM) (8-10). This association leads to the recruitment and activation of IRAK1 and IRAK4, which form a complex with TRAF6 to activate TAK1 and IKK (8,11-14). Activation of IKK leads to the degradation of IκB, which normally maintains NF-κB in an inactive state by sequestering it in the cytoplasm.

$115
20 µl
$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

Background: Forkhead box (Fox) proteins are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors containing a sequence known as Forkhead box or winged helix DNA binding domain (1). The human genome contains 43 Fox proteins that are divided into subfamilies. The FoxP subfamily has four members, FoxP1 - FoxP4, which are broadly expressed and play important roles in organ development, immune response and cancer pathogenesis (2-4). The FoxP subfamily has several characteristics that are atypical among Fox proteins: their Forkhead domain is located at the carboxy-terminal region and they contain motifs that promote homo- and heterodimerization. FoxP proteins usually function as transcriptional repressors (4,5).FoxP3 is crucial for the development of T cells with regulatory properties (Treg) (6). Mutations in FoxP3 are associated with immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, and X-linked syndrome (IPEX) (7), while overexpression in mice causes severe immunodeficiency (8). Research studies have shown that FoxP3 functions as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer (9-11).

$309
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PE and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Forkhead box (Fox) proteins are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors containing a sequence known as Forkhead box or winged helix DNA binding domain (1). The human genome contains 43 Fox proteins that are divided into subfamilies. The FoxP subfamily has four members, FoxP1 - FoxP4, which are broadly expressed and play important roles in organ development, immune response and cancer pathogenesis (2-4). The FoxP subfamily has several characteristics that are atypical among Fox proteins: their Forkhead domain is located at the carboxy-terminal region and they contain motifs that promote homo- and heterodimerization. FoxP proteins usually function as transcriptional repressors (4,5).FoxP3 is crucial for the development of T cells with regulatory properties (Treg) (6). Mutations in FoxP3 are associated with immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, and X-linked syndrome (IPEX) (7), while overexpression in mice causes severe immunodeficiency (8). Research studies have shown that FoxP3 functions as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer (9-11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Forkhead box (Fox) proteins are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors containing a sequence known as Forkhead box or winged helix DNA binding domain (1). The human genome contains 43 Fox proteins that are divided into subfamilies. The FoxP subfamily has four members, FoxP1 - FoxP4, which are broadly expressed and play important roles in organ development, immune response and cancer pathogenesis (2-4). The FoxP subfamily has several characteristics that are atypical among Fox proteins: their Forkhead domain is located at the carboxy-terminal region and they contain motifs that promote homo- and heterodimerization. FoxP proteins usually function as transcriptional repressors (4,5).FoxP3 is crucial for the development of T cells with regulatory properties (Treg) (6). Mutations in FoxP3 are associated with immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, and X-linked syndrome (IPEX) (7), while overexpression in mice causes severe immunodeficiency (8). Research studies have shown that FoxP3 functions as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer (9-11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Western Blotting

Background: Forkhead box (Fox) proteins are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors containing a sequence known as Forkhead box or winged helix DNA binding domain (1). The human genome contains 43 Fox proteins that are divided into subfamilies. The FoxP subfamily has four members, FoxP1 - FoxP4, which are broadly expressed and play important roles in organ development, immune response and cancer pathogenesis (2-4). The FoxP subfamily has several characteristics that are atypical among Fox proteins: their Forkhead domain is located at the carboxy-terminal region and they contain motifs that promote homo- and heterodimerization. FoxP proteins usually function as transcriptional repressors (4,5).FoxP3 is crucial for the development of T cells with regulatory properties (Treg) (6). Mutations in FoxP3 are associated with immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, and X-linked syndrome (IPEX) (7), while overexpression in mice causes severe immunodeficiency (8). Research studies have shown that FoxP3 functions as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer (9-11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$339
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PE-Cy7® and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Forkhead box (Fox) proteins are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors containing a sequence known as Forkhead box or winged helix DNA binding domain (1). The human genome contains 43 Fox proteins that are divided into subfamilies. The FoxP subfamily has four members, FoxP1 - FoxP4, which are broadly expressed and play important roles in organ development, immune response and cancer pathogenesis (2-4). The FoxP subfamily has several characteristics that are atypical among Fox proteins: their Forkhead domain is located at the carboxy-terminal region and they contain motifs that promote homo- and heterodimerization. FoxP proteins usually function as transcriptional repressors (4,5).FoxP3 is crucial for the development of T cells with regulatory properties (Treg) (6). Mutations in FoxP3 are associated with immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, and X-linked syndrome (IPEX) (7), while overexpression in mice causes severe immunodeficiency (8). Research studies have shown that FoxP3 functions as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer (9-11).

$309
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to APC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Forkhead box (Fox) proteins are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors containing a sequence known as Forkhead box or winged helix DNA binding domain (1). The human genome contains 43 Fox proteins that are divided into subfamilies. The FoxP subfamily has four members, FoxP1 - FoxP4, which are broadly expressed and play important roles in organ development, immune response and cancer pathogenesis (2-4). The FoxP subfamily has several characteristics that are atypical among Fox proteins: their Forkhead domain is located at the carboxy-terminal region and they contain motifs that promote homo- and heterodimerization. FoxP proteins usually function as transcriptional repressors (4,5).FoxP3 is crucial for the development of T cells with regulatory properties (Treg) (6). Mutations in FoxP3 are associated with immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, and X-linked syndrome (IPEX) (7), while overexpression in mice causes severe immunodeficiency (8). Research studies have shown that FoxP3 functions as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer (9-11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Receptor Interacting Protein 2 (RIP2) is a serine/threonine kinase with a carboxy-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD). Association of RIP2 with the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) causes activation of NF-κB and induction of apoptosis (1-3). Expression of RIP2 is induced in macrophages upon exposure to bacterial cell wall components, such as LPS. RIP2-deficient mouse models demonstrate that this kinase integrates and transduces signals for both the innate and adaptive immune system (4,5).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The leukocyte Ig-like receptor subfamily B (LILRB) are type-I transmembrane glycoproteins containing ligand binding extracellular IgG-like domains and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMS) within the cytoplasmic domain, which recruit SHP protein tyrosine phosphatases, leading to transduction of signals that inhibit immune cell activation. Encoded within a region of chromosome 19 known as the leukocyte receptor complex, the LILRB subfamily of inhibitory receptors consists of LILRB1 to LILRB5, also referred to as CD85J, CD85D, CD85A, CD85K, and CD85C, respectively (1). There is mounting evidence that LILRBs function, in part, as a novel class of immune checkpoint receptors and support tumor growth through the transmission of inhibitory signals upon engagement of ligands expressed on tumor cells (2).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

Background: Forkhead box (Fox) proteins are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors containing a sequence known as Forkhead box or winged helix DNA binding domain (1). The human genome contains 43 Fox proteins that are divided into subfamilies. The FoxP subfamily has four members, FoxP1 - FoxP4, which are broadly expressed and play important roles in organ development, immune response and cancer pathogenesis (2-4). The FoxP subfamily has several characteristics that are atypical among Fox proteins: their Forkhead domain is located at the carboxy-terminal region and they contain motifs that promote homo- and heterodimerization. FoxP proteins usually function as transcriptional repressors (4,5).FoxP3 is crucial for the development of T cells with regulatory properties (Treg) (6). Mutations in FoxP3 are associated with immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, and X-linked syndrome (IPEX) (7), while overexpression in mice causes severe immunodeficiency (8). Research studies have shown that FoxP3 functions as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer (9-11).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II) molecules are heterodimeric, transmembrane glycoproteins expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells. Expression can also be induced on other cell types through interferon-γ signaling (1). Prior to being displayed on the cell membrane, MHC class II molecules are loaded with exogenous peptide antigens approximately 15-24 amino acids in length that were derived from endocytosed extracellular proteins digested in the lysosome (2). Antigen-presentation through MHC class II is required for T cell activation during the immune response to extracellular pathogens (2). In humans, the MHC class II protein complex is encoded by the human leukocyte antigen gene complex (HLA). HLAs corresponding to MHC class II are HLA-DP, HLA-DM, HLA-DOA, HLA-DOB, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR (3).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Interferon-stimulated 15 kDa protein (ISG15), also known as ubiquitin cross-reactive protein (UCRP), is a member of the ubiquitin-like protein family and functions in various biological pathways from pregnancy to innate immune responses (1). Expression of ISG15 is stimulated by cellular exposure to type 1 interferons α and β, in addition to infection with viruses such as influenza B (2,3). After exposure to type I interferons, both lymphocytes and monocytes, in addition to some fibroblasts and epithelial cells, release ISG15 into culture medium (1,4). ISG15 has been shown to function as a cytokine, stimulating interferon γ secretion by monocytes and macrophages, proliferation of natural killer cells, and chemotactic responses in neutrophils (4,5). ISG15 has also been shown to function intracellularly, being covalently conjugated to other proteins by E1 (Ube1L), E2 (UbcH8) and E3 ligases via a multi-step process analogous to ubiquitination (6,7). ISG15 is removed from proteins by the ubiquitin processing protease Ubp43 (8). ISG15-protein conjugation (ISGylation) is induced by type 1 interferons, and target proteins include the serine protease inhibitor Serpin 2A, PLCγ1, ERK1/2, Jak1 and Stat1 (9,10). Unlike ubiquitination, ISGylation does not target proteins for degradation, rather ISGylation increases Jak1 and Stat1 activity, enhancing the cellular response to interferons (11).

$129
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to allophycocyanin (APC) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: When T cells encounter antigens via the T cell receptor (TCR), information about the quantity and quality of antigens is relayed to the intracellular signal transduction machinery (1). This activation process depends mainly on CD3 (Cluster of Differentiation 3), a multiunit protein complex that directly associates with the TCR. CD3 is composed of four polypeptides: ζ, γ, ε and δ. Each of these polypeptides contains at least one immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) (2). Engagement of TCR complex with foreign antigens induces tyrosine phosphorylation in the ITAM motifs and phosphorylated ITAMs function as docking sites for signaling molecules such as ZAP-70 and p85 subunit of PI-3 kinase (3,4). TCR ligation also induces a conformational change in CD3ε, such that a proline region is exposed and then associates with the adaptor protein Nck (5).

$159
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to violetFluor™ 450 and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: When T cells encounter antigens via the T cell receptor (TCR), information about the quantity and quality of antigens is relayed to the intracellular signal transduction machinery (1). This activation process depends mainly on CD3 (Cluster of Differentiation 3), a multiunit protein complex that directly associates with the TCR. CD3 is composed of four polypeptides: ζ, γ, ε and δ. Each of these polypeptides contains at least one immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) (2). Engagement of TCR complex with foreign antigens induces tyrosine phosphorylation in the ITAM motifs and phosphorylated ITAMs function as docking sites for signaling molecules such as ZAP-70 and p85 subunit of PI-3 kinase (3,4). TCR ligation also induces a conformational change in CD3ε, such that a proline region is exposed and then associates with the adaptor protein Nck (5).

$259
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to APC-Cy7® and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: When T cells encounter antigens via the T cell receptor (TCR), information about the quantity and quality of antigens is relayed to the intracellular signal transduction machinery (1). This activation process depends mainly on CD3 (Cluster of Differentiation 3), a multiunit protein complex that directly associates with the TCR. CD3 is composed of four polypeptides: ζ, γ, ε and δ. Each of these polypeptides contains at least one immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) (2). Engagement of TCR complex with foreign antigens induces tyrosine phosphorylation in the ITAM motifs and phosphorylated ITAMs function as docking sites for signaling molecules such as ZAP-70 and p85 subunit of PI-3 kinase (3,4). TCR ligation also induces a conformational change in CD3ε, such that a proline region is exposed and then associates with the adaptor protein Nck (5).

$89
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to FITC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: When T cells encounter antigens via the T cell receptor (TCR), information about the quantity and quality of antigens is relayed to the intracellular signal transduction machinery (1). This activation process depends mainly on CD3 (Cluster of Differentiation 3), a multiunit protein complex that directly associates with the TCR. CD3 is composed of four polypeptides: ζ, γ, ε and δ. Each of these polypeptides contains at least one immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) (2). Engagement of TCR complex with foreign antigens induces tyrosine phosphorylation in the ITAM motifs and phosphorylated ITAMs function as docking sites for signaling molecules such as ZAP-70 and p85 subunit of PI-3 kinase (3,4). TCR ligation also induces a conformational change in CD3ε, such that a proline region is exposed and then associates with the adaptor protein Nck (5).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated HSP60 (D6F1) XP® Rabbit mAb #12165.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Xenopus, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: In both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells the misfolding and aggregation of proteins during biogenesis and under conditions of cellular stress are prevented by molecular chaperones (1-3). HSP60 has primarily been known as a mitochondrial protein that is important for folding key proteins after import into the mitochondria (4). Research studies have shown that a significant amount of HSP60 is also present in the cytosol of many cells, and that it is induced by stress, inflammatory and immune responses, and autoantibodies correlated with Alzheimer's, coronary artery diseases, MS, and diabetes (5-8).

$129
100 µg
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in mouse cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: When T cells encounter antigens via the T cell receptor (TCR), information about the quantity and quality of antigens is relayed to the intracellular signal transduction machinery (1). This activation process depends mainly on CD3 (Cluster of Differentiation 3), a multiunit protein complex that directly associates with the TCR. CD3 is composed of four polypeptides: ζ, γ, ε and δ. Each of these polypeptides contains at least one immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) (2). Engagement of TCR complex with foreign antigens induces tyrosine phosphorylation in the ITAM motifs and phosphorylated ITAMs function as docking sites for signaling molecules such as ZAP-70 and p85 subunit of PI-3 kinase (3,4). TCR ligation also induces a conformational change in CD3ε, such that a proline region is exposed and then associates with the adaptor protein Nck (5).