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Mouse Perikaryon

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: MEK1 and MEK2, also called MAPK or Erk kinases, are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and differentiation (1-3). Activation of MEK1 and MEK2 occurs through phosphorylation of two serine residues at positions 217 and 221, located in the activation loop of subdomain VIII, by Raf-like molecules. MEK1/2 is activated by a wide variety of growth factors and cytokines and also by membrane depolarization and calcium influx (1-4). Constitutively active forms of MEK1/2 are sufficient for the transformation of NIH/3T3 cells or the differentiation of PC-12 cells (4). MEK activates p44 and p42 MAP kinase by phosphorylating both threonine and tyrosine residues at sites located within the activation loop of kinase subdomain VIII.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1), a serine/threonine phosphatase, is highly conserved in eukaryotic cells. Four isoforms of PP1 have been characterized: PP1α, PP1δ, PP1γ1 and PP1γ2 (1). Involvement in cell cycle regulation is one of the biological functions of PP1 (1). It has been illustrated that PP1 dephosphorylates Rb and cdc25 during mitosis (2,3). A cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation at Thr320 of PP1α by cdc2 kinase inhibits PP1α activity (4).

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology (CST) antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated antibody (p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (137F5) Rabbit mAb #4695).
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, Dog, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$122
20 µl
$307
200 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$111
20 µl
$260
200 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, Dog, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster, Human, Mouse, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The highly conserved receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), homologous to the β subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins, was originally identified through its binding of active PKCβII and other classical PKC isoforms (1). RACK1 is a scaffold protein that recruits PKC and a wide range of other proteins to specific subcellular locations, promoting the formation of multiprotein complexes to induce and integrate various signaling pathways (reviewed in 2). One example of this is its enhancement of PKC-dependent JNK activation (3). RACK1 protein also resides in the eukaryotic ribosome, suggesting the possibility that RACK1 participates in the assembly of signaling complexes that regulate translation as well (reviewed in 4). RACK1 binds the SH2 domain of Src, and phosphorylation of RACK1 by Src occurs at Tyr228 after PKC activation (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: FUS/TLS (fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma) was initially identified by investigators as a component of fusion proteins found in a variety of cancers such as myxoid liposarcoma, acute myeloid leukemia, and Ewing’s tumor (1). FUS/TLS fusion with the DNA binding domain of transcription activators such as CHOP and ERG leads to aberrant transcription of target genes that is thought by researchers to lead to tumor development (1-5). FUS/TLS is involved in a wide range of RNA processing events such as pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA transcription, and miRNA processing (1,6). In addition to its role in RNA metabolism, FUS/TLS maintains genomic stability and co-regulates gene expression by interacting with various transcription factors such as nuclear receptors, YB-1, p65 subunit of NF-κB, TFIID, and RUNX2 (1,6,7). More recently, researchers have found several mutations of FUS/TLS in ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and FTLD (frontotemporal lobar degeneration) patients that causes cytoplasmic mislocalization of FUS/TLS (6,8-11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Endonuclease G (EndoG) is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial nuclease that has been reported to function in apoptosis, DNA recombination and cell proliferation (1-5). EndoG is expressed as a precursor protein containing an amino-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence which is removed when the protein is imported into the mitochondria (1). During apoptosis EndoG is released from the mitochondria, translocates to the nucleus and cooperates with other nucleases to trigger DNA fragmentation associated with the apoptotic process (3,6,7).

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology (CST) antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The unconjugated p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (137F5) Rabbit mAb #4695 reacts with human, mouse, rat, monkey, mink, pig, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, hamster, bovine and zebrafish p44/42 MAPK protein. CST expects that p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (137F5) Rabbit mAb (Biotinylated) will also recognize MAPK in these species.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, Dog, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The highly conserved receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), homologous to the β subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins, was originally identified through its binding of active PKCβII and other classical PKC isoforms (1). RACK1 is a scaffold protein that recruits PKC and a wide range of other proteins to specific subcellular locations, promoting the formation of multiprotein complexes to induce and integrate various signaling pathways (reviewed in 2). One example of this is its enhancement of PKC-dependent JNK activation (3). RACK1 protein also resides in the eukaryotic ribosome, suggesting the possibility that RACK1 participates in the assembly of signaling complexes that regulate translation as well (reviewed in 4). RACK1 binds the SH2 domain of Src, and phosphorylation of RACK1 by Src occurs at Tyr228 after PKC activation (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s, is a progressive movement disorder characterized by rigidity, tremors, and postural instability. The pathological hallmarks of PD are progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the ventral midbrain and the presence of intracellular Lewy bodies (protein aggregates of α-synuclein, ubiquitin, and other components) in surviving neurons of the brain stem (1). Research studies have shown various genes and loci are genetically linked to PD including α-synuclein/PARK1 and 4, parkin/PARK2, UCH-L1/PARK5, PINK1/PARK6, DJ-1/PARK7, LRRK2/PARK8, synphilin-1, and NR4A2 (2).Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) contains amino-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRR), a Ras-like small GTP binding protein-like (ROC) domain, an MLK protein kinase domain, and a carboxy-terminal WD40 repeat domain. Research studies have linked at least 20 LRRK2 mutations to PD, with the G2019S mutation being the most prevalent (3). The G2019S mutation causes increased LRRK2 kinase activity, which induces a progressive reduction in neurite length that leads to progressive neurite loss and decreased neuronal survival (4). Researchers are currently testing the MLK inhibitor CEP-1347 in PD clinical trials, indicating the potential value of LRRK2 as a therapeutic target for treatment of PD (5).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2). A p44/42 MAPK mouse mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, p44/42 MAPK is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a p44/42 MAPK rabbit detection mAb is added to detect the captured p44/42 MAPK protein. Anti-Rabbit IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total p44/42 MAPK.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Phospho-MEK1 (Ser217/221) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Phospho-MEK1 (Ser217/221) protein. MEK1 Mouse mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, total MEK1 protein (phospho- and nonphospho-) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a Phospho-MEK1/2 Antibody is added to detect the captured phospho-MEK1 protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of phospho-MEK1 protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: MEK1 and MEK2, also called MAPK or Erk kinases, are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and differentiation (1-3). Activation of MEK1 and MEK2 occurs through phosphorylation of two serine residues at positions 217 and 221, located in the activation loop of subdomain VIII, by Raf-like molecules. MEK1/2 is activated by a wide variety of growth factors and cytokines and also by membrane depolarization and calcium influx (1-4). Constitutively active forms of MEK1/2 are sufficient for the transformation of NIH/3T3 cells or the differentiation of PC-12 cells (4). MEK activates p44 and p42 MAP kinase by phosphorylating both threonine and tyrosine residues at sites located within the activation loop of kinase subdomain VIII.

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Thr202/Tyr204) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of p44/42 MAPK when dually phosphorylated at Thr202/Tyr204 of p44 (Thr185/Tyr187 of p42), and singly phosphorylated at Thr202 of p44 (Thr185 of p42). A phospho-p44/42 MAPK rabbit mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Thr202/Tyr204) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a p44/42 MAPK mouse detection mAb is added to detect the captured phospho-p44/42 MAPK protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of p44/42 MAPK phosphorylated at Thr202/Tyr204.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$469
Reagents for 4 x 96 well plates
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Thr202/Tyr204) Sandwich ELISA Antibody Pair is offered as an economical alternative to our PathScan® Phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Thr202/Tyr204) Sandwich ELISA Kit #7177. Capture and detection antibodies (100X stocks) and an HRP-conjugated secondary antibody (1000X stock) are supplied. Sufficient reagents are supplied for 4 x 96 well ELISAs. The Phospho-p44/42 MAPK Rabbit Capture Antibody is coated in PBS overnight in a 96 well microplate. After blocking, cell lysate is added followed by a p44/42 MAPK Mouse Detection Antibody and an HRP-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added for color development. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of p44/42 MAPK phosphorylated at Thr202/Tyr204.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, is distinguished by multiple cysteine-rich ligand-binding domains, a single transmembrane sequence and a noncatalytic cytoplasmic domain (1). p75NTR displays paradoxical functions when acting alone or with other receptor proteins. Working in concert with Trk receptors, p75NTR recognizes neurotrophins and transmits trophic signals into the cell. Both p75NTR and TrkA are required to activate PI3K-Akt signaling, while TrkA can individually activate the MAP kinase pathway. In contrast, p75NTR, possibly through JNK, ensures appropriate apoptosis of injured neurons and improperly targeted neonatal neurons (2).The p75NTR protein undergoes sequential cleavage similar to APP and Notch. First, α-secretase removes the p75NTR ectodomain, eliminating ligand-mediated signaling. At this point, the membrane-tethered cleavage product can still fine-tune Trk-mediated trophic actions. γ-secretase cleaves within the transmembrane domain to liberate the cytoplasmic tail from its membrane anchor and allow the p75NTR intracellular domain to translocate to the nucleus (3,4).

$364
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology® antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (Thr202/Tyr204) (D13.14.4E) XP® Rabbit mAb #4370.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, D. melanogaster, Dog, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, S. cerevisiae, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Eph receptors are the largest known family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). They can be divided into two groups based on sequence similarity and on their preference for a subset of ligands. While EphA receptors bind to a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ephrin A ligand, EphB receptors bind to ephrin B proteins that have a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain (1,2). Research studies have shown that Eph receptors and ligands may be involved in many diseases including cancer (3). Both ephrin A and B ligands have dual functions. As RTK ligands, ephrins stimulate the kinase activity of Eph receptors and activate signaling pathways in receptor-expressing cells. The ephrin extracellular domain is sufficient for this function as long as it is clustered (4). The second function of ephrins has been described as "reverse signaling", whereby the cytoplasmic domain becomes tyrosine phosphorylated, allowing interactions with other proteins that may activate signaling pathways in the ligand-expressing cells (5).The EphA3 receptor preferentially binds ephrin-A5. This ligand-receptor interaction stimulates EphA3 signaling, regulates cell adhesion and migration, and induces cellular morphologic responses (6-8). EphA3 plays a critical role in callosal axon guidance (9), retinotectal mapping of neurons (10), as well as cardiac cell migration and differentiation (11). Investigators have shown that somatic mutations in functional domains of EphA3 are linked to lung cancer progression (12). In addition, EphA3 expression levels have been correlated with tumor angiogenesis and progression in gastric and colorectal carcinoma (13,14).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (137F5) Rabbit mAb #4695.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, Dog, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$303
200 µl
$717
600 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.