Cell proliferation is an increase in cell number due to cell division, or cytokinesis, the final step of the cell cycle. Cell proliferation is necessary for normal tissue development and maintenance over the lifespan.
Cell proliferation is a tightly regulated process, with many different proteins controlling cell cycle checkpoints. Genetic mutations found in cancer cells cause uncontrolled cellular proliferation.
The cell cycle is composed of multiple phases, including the G1 phase where cells increase in size, the S phase where DNA is newly synthesized, the G2 phase where further cell growth occurs, and finally the M, or mitosis, phase where the cell ultimately divides. Some cells exit the cell cycle and stop dividing altogether; this is known as quiescence or resting state (G0)
|Assay||What is Measured|
|Measures the level of DNA synthesis occuring during cellular proliferation|
|Measures cell division using amine-reactive dyes and the principle of dye dilution to trace multiple rounds of cell proliferation, via flow cytometry|
|Quantifies the number of cells at different stages of the cell cycle based on the profile of their DNA.|
|Proliferation Marker||Proliferation Marker Description|
|Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PNCA)||DNA sliding clamp protein that plays an important role in DNA replication|
|Ki-67||Non-nuclear histone protein only expressed at high levels in proliferating cells|
|Phospho-histone H3||Nuclear histone protein that is phosphorylated in proliferating cells|
|β-galactosidase activity||β-galactosidase activity is associated with senescent cells that are not proliferating|
Senescence β-Galactosidase Staining Kit #9860: β-Galactosidase staining at pH 6 on senescent WI38 cells at population doubling 36 (right).