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Solutions for Oncology Therapeutics Discovery

Oncology Drug Development

Put our experience to work for you. Cell Signaling Technology® (CST®) scientists are biology, application, and therapeutic area domain experts and are here to streamline your discovery. We are passionate about science and keep up with all the latest research and new treatment approaches in oncology therapeutic areas, allowing us to offer a broad antibody portfolio against targets that could lead to new, more efficacious therapies.

Solutions Across the Drug Development Continuum

Target ID & Validation Screening & Lead Optimization Preclinical Safety & Validation

Target ID and MOA studies

Target validation

Flexible Packaging

Identify primary and secondary endpoints

  • ELISA, HCS, Multiplex IHC

Platform compatibility

  • ELISA: MSD, AlphaLISA, HTRF, Quanterix
  • Multiplex IHC: Akoya Biosciences, Fluidigm, NanoString
  • Automated WB (e.g., ProteinSimple)


Antibodies That Work on YOUR Platform

Custom Conjugation Services

Customized Formulations for Immunoassay Development

Resources and Guides for Antibodies Compatible With Your Assay Platform

Platforms Application Conjugate Type* Product Format
  • AlphaLISA/Screen
  • MSD
  • Quanterix (Simoa)
  • Luminex
  • High Throughput ELISA
  • Fluorophores
  • Lanthanides
  • Biotin
  • Beads
  • CyTOF/Helios
  • Hyperion
  • MIBI
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Mass Cytometry/IMC
  • Multiplex IHC
  • Metal Ions
  • Akoya Biosciences (CODEX, OPAL)
  • Ultivue
  • Immuno-SABER
  • NanoString
  • Multiplex IHC
  • Oligonucleotides
  • Fluorophores
  • IHC Autostainers
  • IHC
  • N/A
  • Protein Simple
  • Automated WB
  • N/A
  • High Content Screening & Analysis
  • IF Imaging
  • Fluorophores

*Some conjugates directly available for purchase from CST (other conjugate types may be proprietary).

Oncology Drug Development

Protein kinases are involved in a wide variety of cellular functions including cell cycle regulation and differentiation. Investigating oncogenic kinases like Bcr/Abl and K-Ras have advanced the field of cancer and led to the emergence of targeted therapies and personalized medicines as a cancer therapeutic strategy.

RTKs/Growth Factor Receptors

ROS1 (D4D6<sup>®</sup>) Rabbit mAb #3287

ROS1 (D4D6®) Rabbit mAb #3287: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung carcinoma using #3287.

Intracellular Kinases

Ras (E8N8L) XP<sup>®</sup> Rabbit mAb #67648

Ras (E8N8L) XP® Rabbit mAb #67648: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded human non-small cell lung carcinoma using #67648.

Kinase Inhibition Readouts

ROS1 (D4D6®) Rabbit mAb #3287

FastScan™ Phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Thr202/Tyr204) ELISA Kit #42173

Cell cycle checkpoint and DDR pathways work together to preserve genomic integrity. Perturbations in either pathway can lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation and the accumulation of mutations that drive tumorigenicity. Targeting defects in these pathways can lead to next-generation therapeutics for multiple cancer types.

Cell Cycle Regulation

FastScan™ Phospho-Rb (Ser807/811) ELISA Kit #10754

FastScan™ Phospho-Rb (Ser807/811) ELISA Kit #10754

DNA Damage Response (DDR)

Phospho-Chk1 (Ser345) (133D3) Rabbit mAb #2348

Phospho-Chk1 (Ser345) (133D3) Rabbit mAb #2348: Confocal IF analysis of C2C12 cells, untreated (left) or UV-treated (right), using #2348 (green). Actin filaments have been labeled with DY-554 phalloidin (red).


p21 Waf1/Cip1 (12D1) Rabbit mAb #2947

p21 Waf1/Cip1 (12D1) Rabbit mAb #2947: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma using #2947in the presence of control peptide.

The cancer metabolism field has evolved from describing the metabolic features of cancer cells to understanding how cancer cells are metabolically reprogrammed and how that influences migration, invasion, and metastasis. Oncology therapeutics targeting metabolic pathways could reduce cancer growth and provide additional combination therapy options.

Glucose Metabolism

PKM2 (D78A4) XP<sup>®</sup> Rabbit mAb #4053

PKM2 (D78A4) XP® Rabbit mAb #4053: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung carcinoma using #4053.

Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Metabolism

Phospho-Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (Ser79) (D7D11) Rabbit mAb #11818

Phospho-Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (Ser79) (D7D11) Rabbit mAb #11818: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma using #11818.


LC3B (E5Q2K) Mouse mAb #83506

LC3B (E5Q2K) Mouse mAb #83506: Confocal IF analysis of HCT 116 cells treated with Chloroquine #14774 (50 µM, overnight) using #83506 (green). Actin filaments were labeled with β-Actin (13E5) Rabbit mAb #4970 (red) and nuclei were labeled with DAPI #4083 (blue).

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular program known to play a crucial role in malignant progression, promoting metastasis and therapy resistance. Novel therapeutics target the activation of EMT to reduce the spread of cancer throughout the body and improve patient outcomes

Apoptosis evasion is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Targeting an apoptotic pathway to trigger cell death in cancer cells is a particularly intriguing approach that could lead to universal cancer therapeutics that are not specific to a cancer type.

Intrinsic Pathway

Bcl-xL (54H6) Rabbit mAb #2764

Bcl-xL (54H6) Rabbit mAb #2764: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung carcinoma, using #2764.

Extrinsic Pathway

DR5 (D4E9) XP<sup>®</sup> Rabbit mAb #8074

DR5 (D4E9) XP® Rabbit mAb #8074: Confocal IF analysis of HT-1080 cells using #8074 (green). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye).

Caspase Activators

Survivin (71G4B7) Rabbit mAb #2808

Survivin (71G4B7) Rabbit mAb #2808: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded human transitional epithelial carcinoma of the bladder using #2808.

Aberrent epigenetic processes and genetic mutations both contribute to oncogenesis; however, most cancer therapies focus on targeting genetic abnormalities. Epigenetic therapies that reprogram neoplastic cells to behave more like normal cells provide an alternative therapeutic approach and are likely to be the most efficacious when used in combination with other anticancer therapies.

Methylation and Demethylation Inhibitors

Ezh2 (D2C9) XP<sup>®</sup> Rabbit mAb #5246

Ezh2 (D2C9) XP® Rabbit mAb #5246: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded human lymphoma using #5246.

Acetylation and Deacetylation Inhibitor

p300 (D8Z4E) Rabbit mAb #86377

p300 (D8Z4E) Rabbit mAb #86377: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded human squamous cell lung carcinoma using #86377.

Histone Mutations

Histone H3 (K9M Mutant Specific) (E4N7V) Rabbit mAb #54905

Histone H3 (K9M Mutant Specific) (E4N7V) Rabbit mAb #54905: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded histone H3 K9M mutant mouse small intestine using #54905. (Tissue courtesy of Dr. Aaron Huebner, Hochedlinger Lab at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.)

Immuno-oncology Drug Development

Tumor growth and survival are influenced by malignant cells and signals from the endothelial cells, stromal fibroblasts, and immune cells that make up the tumor microenvironment (TME). The degree of tumor infiltration by cytotoxic T-cells as well as complex interactions with endothelial cells and fibroblasts can predict and modulate clinical outcomes.

Immune Cell Infiltration

CD8α (D8A8Y) Rabbit mAb #85336

CD8α (D8A8Y) Rabbit mAb #85336: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded human Crohn's diseased colon using #85336.

Immune Cell Function

CD86 (E2G8P) Rabbit mAb #91882

CD86 (E2G8P) Rabbit mAb #91882: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung adenocarcinoma using #91882 performed on the Leica® BOND™ Rx.

Therapeutic Targets

CD47 (D3O7P) Rabbit mAb #63000

CD47 (D3O7P) Rabbit mAb #63000: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded human urothelial carcinoma using #63000 performed on the Leica® BOND™ Rx.

Multiplex IHC Compatibility

CD8α (D8A8Y) Rabbit mAb #85336

Multiplex IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded malignant melanoma on the CODEX platform using Granzyme B (D6E9W) Rabbit mAb #46890, shows the widespread labeling of infiltrating immune cells in this sample, along with other markers.

Proteomic and Genomic Correlation using Nanostring Technology

CD86 (E2G8P) Rabbit mAb #91882

Serial sections of each NSCLC specimen were stained with antibodies for each of the noted proteins. Tumor Ras G12C genotype of each sample (A–C) obtained from SNV analysis is indicated (+/-) on the left. An additional single serial section was simultaneously stained with DNA-barcoded antibodies. Normalized digital counts from the nCounter analysis for each protein are shown from left to right, color-coded to each sample (A–C). Download Application Note: Correlate Protein Expression with Genomic Data and IHC - Nanostring

T cell-targeted immunomodulators that block immune checkpoints like PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 have revolutionized how we approach cancer treatment. These therapies have significantly improved outcomes for some patients with late-stage cancers.

Checkpoint Therapy Targets

TIGIT (E5Y1W) XP<sup>®</sup> Rabbit mAb #99567

TIGIT (E5Y1W) XP® Rabbit mAb #99567: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded human non-small cell lung carcinoma using #99567.

T Cell Exhaustion

Tox/Tox2 (E6I3Q) Rabbit mAb #73758

Tox/Tox2 (E6I3Q) Rabbit mAb #73758: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded human colon carcinoma using #73758 performed on the Leica® BOND™ Rx.

T Cell Activity

IFN-γ (D3H2) XP<sup>®</sup> Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor<sup>®</sup> 488 Conjugate) #12942

IFN-γ (D3H2) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) #12942: Flow cytometric analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells treated with TPA, Ionomycin, and Brefeldin A using #12942. Co-stained with CD3 (UCHT1) Mouse mAb (APC Conjugate) #19881.

Activation of the innate immune system can counteract the pathways triggered by cancer cells to evade the immune system. Further insights into these mechanisms will potentially lead to novel I/O therapeutics that can lead to long-term clinical benefits in combination with other therapeutic approaches.


IL-1β (3A6) Mouse mAb #12242

IL-1β (3A6) Mouse mAb #12242: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded human large intestine (ulcerative chronic colitis of the rectum) using #12242.


Phospho-STING (Ser366) (E9A9K) Rabbit mAb #50907

Phospho-STING (Ser366) (E9A9K) Rabbit mAb #50907: Flow cytometric analysis of TPA-differentiated THP-1 cells that have been activated to phosphorylate STING (green line) vs unactivated (blue). Isotype controls are shown by dashed lines.


NF-κB p65 (D14E12) XP<sup>®</sup> Rabbit mAb #8242

NF-κB p65 (D14E12) XP® Rabbit mAb #8242: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded human chronic cholecystitis using #8242.

Immune cell activation readouts can be used to assess the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system when determining the efficacy of novel immuno-oncology therapeutics.

Adoptive Cell Therapy and Cell Viability Assays

Adoptive cell therapies are an immunotherapeutic approach that utilizes tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes or gene-modified T cells expressing novel T cell receptors (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) to eradicate tumor cells. Further development goals for this treatment approach include improving the anti-tumor efficacy, reducing associated toxicity, and realizing allogenic potential.

Monitoring CAR-T Target Expression

TNFRSF17/BCMA (E6D7B) Rabbit mAb #88183

TNFRSF17/BCMA (E6D7B) Rabbit mAb #88183: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded human normal colon using #88183.

T Cell Phenotyping

TIM-3 (D5D5R™) XP<sup>®</sup> Rabbit mAb #45208

TIM-3 (D5D5R™) XP® Rabbit mAb #45208: Flow cytometric analysis of primary CD4+ T cells (green, positive) and Jurkat cells (blue, negative).

T Cell Functional Analysis

Cell Proliferation Tracer Kit (Fluorometric, Violet 450) #48444

Cell Proliferation Tracer Kit (Fluorometric, Violet 450) #48444: Live human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were labeled with the kit comparing treatment to induce cellular division (green) vs. untreated (solid blue line). Unstained cells were used as a control (dashed line). Multiple peaks equate to multiple rounds of cellular division (proliferation) following treatment.

Cell viability is an indication of the percentage of healthy cells within a sample. Biological readouts for cell viability are used to assess the safety and efficacy of therapeutics developed to inhibit proliferation or promote apoptosis in cancer cells.


Ki-67 (8D5) Mouse mAb #9449

Ki-67 (8D5) Mouse mAb #9449: IHC analysis of paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma using #9449.

Cell Death

PathScan<sup>®</sup> Phospho-RIP (Ser166) Chemiluminescent Sandwich ELISA Kit #88918

PathScan® Phospho-RIP (Ser166) Chemiluminescent Sandwich ELISA Kit #88918


XTT Cell Viability Kit #9095

XTT Cell Viability Kit #9095: C2C12 cells were seeded at varying density in a 96-well plate and incubated overnight. The XTT assay solution was added to the plate and cells were incubated. The absorbance at 450 nm was measured at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 hours.

Sometimes the fastest way to move your discovery forward is to have someone else do it.

CST provides custom solutions that meet your specific research challenge, freeing up your time to focus on the science. Services include:

  • Carrier-free and Customized Formulations: BSA-free, glycerol-free, and azide-free antibody formulations in PBS are ideal for ELISA-like assays, CyTOF® mass cytometry, imaging mass cytometry™, MIBI, oligonucleotide labeling, biotin conjugations, flow and immunofluorescence, and in vivo and functional assays.
  • Custom Antibody Conjugation: If you don’t see the conjugated antibody you need in the CST catalog, we’ll conjugate it for you. Conjugate your antibody to a fluorophore, hapten, bead, or enzyme.
  • Proteomics Analytical Services: CST scientists will qualitatively and quantitatively profile proteins in your sample. Services include post-translational modification analysis, global proteomics, targeted proteomics, or pathway mapping.
  • Bulk Quantitates or Lot Reservations: Eliminate potential supply problems by reserving a single lot or bulk order any CST antibody, reagent, or ELISA kit.
  • Custom Peptides and Controls: Assess antibody specificity with blocking peptides including high-quality AQUA peptides, challenging sequences, unusual post-translational modifications, or validate performance of staining reagents and IHC methods with positive and negative control slides.

Reproducibility in your experiments isn’t a matter of chance. It’s a matter of science.

CST products are peer-tested in the field and over 99.5% of CST recombinant monoclonal antibodies are manufactured in-house providing complete control over our supply chain. Our products are developed, tested, and rigorously validated across multiple applications by tenured CST scientists who understand the underlying biology. This ensures that you’ll always get the lot-to-lot and assay-to-assay consistency required for the lifetime of your project.

Your assay is only as good as your antibody is specific. CST antibodies and ready-to-use ELISA and cellular assay kits are developed with this in mind and are designed to seamlessly fit into your assay workflow and instantly answer key questions. Products are optimized across multiple applications and CST subject matter experts are available to help identify the best readout and clone to effectively assess your therapeutic efficacy and safety. Choose the ideal product for your application.